Earth Dam Failures|UNIT-5|DAMS AND SPILLWAYS|Seepage and structural failures|LECTURE 21|#SBTE,#MSBTE

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Издатель
01/02/21

Earth Dam Failures|
UNIT-5|
DAMS AND SPILLWAYS|Seepage and structural failures
|LECTURE 21
|#SBTE,
#MSBTE





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UNIT-6|
BANDHRA PERCOLATION TANKS AND LIFT IRRIGATION





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Seepage Failures

All earth dams leak to some extent and this is known as seepage. This is the result of water moving slowly through the embankment and/or percolating slowly through the dam's foundation. This is normal and usually not a problem with most earthen dams if measures are taken to control movement of water through and under the dam. If uncontrolled, seepage can progressively erode soil from the embankment or its foundation, resulting in failure of the dam. Typically, erosion of embankment soil begins at the downstream side of the dam and progressively works toward the reservoir eventually developing a path to the reservoir which is referred to as "piping." Piping action can be recognized by an increased seepage flow rate, the discharge of muddy or discolored water, sinkholes on or near the embankment, and possibly a whirlpool at the surface of the reservoir. Once a whirlpool (eddy) is observed, failure of the dam may follow. As with overtopping, fully developed piping is virtually impossible to control and will likely cause failure.
Seepage can also cause dam failure by saturating the embankment, thus weakening the dam, or by increasing internal pressure within the embankment. Saturation and internal pressure within the dam are difficult to determine without proper instrumentation
 

Structural Failure

Structural failure typically refers to the collapse of non-earthen embankment dams such as those made from concrete, masonry, or other materials not consisting of a soil matrix. In addition, failure of a dam's appurtenant structures such as a concrete chute spillway slab, gate structures and components, or other such features may lead to failure of the dam itself. Earthen dams do not tend to collapse or fail catastrophically on their own except where earthquakes of significant magnitude are prevalent or other erosive forces weaken the structure. Large cracks in an earthen embankment, major settlement, and major slides may require emergency measures to ensure safety, especially if these problems occur suddenly. If this type of situation occurs, the lake level should be lowered, the appropriate state and local authorities notified, and professional advice sought. If the observer is uncertain as to the seriousness of the problem, a qualified professional engineer with experience in dam safety should be contacted immediately


BY
SONU KR.
PREM MISHRA

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